IPO : going public

If you’re a board member for a large or fast growing company, there may come a time when you and your colleagues will be asked to determine whether that company should “go public.”

“Going public refers to a private company’s initial public offering (IPO), thus becoming a publicly traded and owned entity. Businesses usually go public to raise capital in hopes of expanding.”

Companies that decide to go public are not only faced with enormous opportunities to grow their organization, they also have to deal with the downsides or challenges associated with the transition.

WHAT IS IPO

An unlisted company (A company which is not listed on the stock exchange) announces initial public offering (IPO) when it decides to raise funds through sale of securities or shares for the first time to the public. In other words, IPO is the selling of securities to the public in the primary market. A primary market deals with new securities being issued for the first time. After listing on the stock exchange, the company becomes a publicly-traded company and the shares of the firm can be traded freely in the open market.

The company which issues shares to the public is referred to as the issuer. There are two common types of IPO.

Fixed Price Offering

Fixed Price IPO can be referred to as the issue price that some companies set for the initial sale of their shares.

Book Building Offering

In the case of book building, the company initiating an IPO offers a 20% price band on the stocks to the investors. The interested investors bid on the shares before the final price is decided.

IPO is used by small and medium enterprises, startups and other new companies to expand, improve their existing business. An IPO is a way for companies to acquire fresh capital, which in turn can be used to finance research, fund capital expenditure, reduce debt and explore other opportunities. An IPO will also bring in transparency into affairs of the company since it will be required to inform financial numbers and other market-related developments on time to the stock exchanges. The company’s investment in various equity and bond instruments will come under greater scrutiny after it gets listed. IPO of any company brings great deal of attention and credibility. Analysts around the world report on investment decisions of the clients.

Investing in an IPO:

Investors betting on an IPO can earn handsome returns if they are wise and have some expertise. The investors can form a choice by going through the prospectus of the companies initiating IPO. They need to go through the IPO prospectus carefully to form an informed idea about the company’s business plan and its purpose for raising stocks in the market. However, one must be watchful and have a clear understanding of analysing financial metrics in order to identify the opportunities.

An unlisted company (A company which is not listed on the stock exchange) announces initial public offering (IPO) when it decides to raise funds through sale of securities or shares for the first time to the public. In other words, IPO is the selling of securities to the public in the primary market. A primary market deals with new securities being issued for the first time. After listing on the stock exchange, the company becomes a publicly-traded company and the shares of the firm can be traded freely in the open market.

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